In Victorian men’s fashion, Collars and Cuffs were something altogether separate and different than a shirt. A whole different paradigm, given today’s men’s dress shirts are one solid piece, with the collar and cuffs attached. See vintage images of the styles and reasons why tailors (and factory producers) bothered to make the collars separate–and why some were made of PAPER rather than fabric.
Laundry was a greater challenge– and more work– than most amateur historians comprehend. Even when methods gave way from a washboard to a washing machine, the amount of physical labor required was nothing simple. Manual washing machines didn’t become available until quite late in the frontier era– after the Transcontinental Railroad went through. The washing machine was first available to order through a catalog in the late 1880’s.
Laundry, back in the day, was accomplished in a kettle over an outdoor fire. Every bucket of water was carried from a river, lake, well, or pump. In this secret recipe from a Kentucky grandmother to her newlywed granddaughter, learn how laundry was accomplished on the homestead pre-washing machine era (which did occur in the 19th century). This time-intensive chore required skill and elbow grease.